The Flavian Signature - Heaven and Hell

gilius

Active Member
Previous parallel: Physician, heal thyself!

That was just the entrance to the typological system that exists between the gospels and Josephus (part 1/50); here's the 2nd part - in sequence - directly after the previous part, following the fall of Jotapata...

Chronology
The Romans were searching for Josephus, and found him in a pit adjoined to a cave among 40 escapees, promising to spare him and urging him to come up via two tribunes. A third tribune, Nicanor, was sent, a former acquantance and friend of Josephus whom convinced him to surrender. Those Jews surrounding him were not happy and threatened to kill him. Josephus gave a long speech about suicide being ignoble, but they did not listen and attacked him. Josephus blocked their attacks, moved by various passions, and opted to have their deaths decided by lot. By luck Josephus was the last survivor and was led by Nicanor to Vespasian. The Romans assembled to see him captured, and Titus was moved to pity by his bravery and patience under his sufferings - sharing his compassion with others - the main reason why his father kept him alive. However, Vespasian gave strict orders for him to be carefully guarded, intending soon to send him to Nero (JW. 3.340-398).

Heaven and Hell
Code:
[table][tr][td]The Romans were searching for Josephus, in a rage at him and because their general wanted him captured, and reckoning that taking him would influence the outcome of the war, they searched [color=red][b]among the dead[/b][/color] and into the most concealed recesses of the city. However, as the city was collapsing he was helped by a supernatural force, for he pulled back from the very middle of enemy and [color=red][b]jumped into a deep pit, to one side of which was a large cave[/b][/color] which was invisible from above ground. There he found [color=orange][b]forty prominent people in hiding[/b][/color], with enough provisions for many days. So during the day he hid from the enemy, who had captured the whole place, and at night he got up from the cave and looked round for some way of escape, carefully noting where the sentries were. But there was no way to escape unseen, since on account of him all routes everywhere were guarded, so he returned to the cave. There he remained hidden for two days, but on the third day he was betrayed, when they captured a woman who had been with them. Vespasian quickly sent two tribunes, Paulinus and Gallicanus, with orders to give Josephus a promise to spare his life and to urge him to come up. So they came and invited the man to come up, assuring him that his life would be spared, but they could not persuade him. His suspicions arose not from the mild temper of those who invited him but from the likelihood that one who had done such things as he had must suffer for it. [color=red][b]His fear that he was being invited to come up to be executed[/b][/color] lasted until Vespasian sent him a third tribune, Nicanor, a former acquaintance and friend of Josephus. He arrived and described the innate mildness of the Romans towards the defeated, assuring him that he had behaved so valiantly that the officers rather admired than hated him. The general wanted him brought to him, not in order to punish him, for he could do this even should he not come freely, but because he preferred to save a gallant man. He added that Vespasian, had he wished to entrap him, would not have sent a friend to him, nor put a fair cloak on a foul deed by masking treachery with friendship; nor would he himself have agreed to come in order to deceive his friend. As Josephus hesitated about Nicanor's proposal, the soldiers in their anger tried [color=red][b]to set fire to the cave[/b][/color], but the tribune would not let them, being anxious to take the man alive. While Nicanor was trying to get him to agree and he saw how many enemies threatened him, Josephus called to mind what he had dreamt in the night, how God had shown him in advance the future troubles of the Jews and what concerned the Roman emperors. He had skill in interpreting [color=purple][b]mysterious dreams coming from God[/b][/color], being a priest himself and descended from priests, and familiar with the [color=purple][b][size=18]prophecies[/size] in the sacred books.[/b][/color] Just then he was in an ecstatic state, and recalling the tremendous images of his recent dreams he secretly prayed to God, "Since it pleases you, Creator of the Jewish nation, to break what you have made, and all their good fortune has gone over to the Romans, and you have chosen this soul of mine to foretell what is later to happen, I willingly surrender to the Romans to go on living, not as a deserter but as your servant." Saying this, he accepted Nicanor's invitation. But when the Jews who had fled with him understood that Josephus was yielding to the offer, they surrounded him in a body and cried out, "Now may our ancestral customs, and God himself, well groan - God who created the souls of Jews to despise death! Josephus, are you so fond of life? [color=olive][b]Can you bear to see the [size=18]light[/size] in a state of slavery?[/b][/color] How soon have you forgotten yourself! How many have you persuaded to give their lives for liberty! Your famous bravery is false and likewise false is your famous wisdom, if you can hope for safety from those whom you have fought so hard, and are even willing to be spared by them, if it is true. But if the fortune of the Romans has made you forget yourself, we will not see the glory of our ancestors tarnished. We will lend you a right hand and a sword. If you die willingly, you will die as general of the Jews, but if unwillingly, you will die as a traitor to them. " When they said this, they began to point their swords at him and threatened to kill him, if he thought of surrendering to the Romans. [b](Wars of the Jews, 3, 340-360)[/b] [/td][td]and leaving Nazareth, He came and settled in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali. This was to fulfill what was spoken through [color=purple][b]Isaiah the [size=18]prophet[/size][/b][/color]:
“THE LAND OF ZEBULUN AND THE LAND OF NAPHTALI,
BY THE WAY OF THE SEA, BEYOND THE JORDAN, GALILEE OF THE GENTILES—
[color=orange][b]“THE PEOPLE WHO WERE SITTING IN[/b][/color] [color=red][b]DARKNESS[/b][/color] [color=olive][b]SAW A GREAT [size=18]LIGHT[/size][/b][/color],
AND THOSE WHO WERE SITTING IN THE LAND AND [color=red][b]SHADOW OF DEATH,[/b][/color]
[color=orange][b]UPON THEM[/b][/color] [color=olive][b]A [size=18]LIGHT[/size] DAWNED.”[/b][/color] [b](Matthew 4:13-16)[/b][/td][/tr]
[/table]
 
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gilius

Active Member
The Romans were searching for Josephus, in a rage at him and because their general wanted him captured, and reckoning that taking him would influence the outcome of the war, they searched among the dead and into the most concealed recesses of the city. However, as the city was collapsing he was helped by a supernatural force, for he pulled back from the very middle of enemy and jumped into a deep pit, to one side of which was a large cave which was invisible from above ground. There he found forty prominent people in hiding, with enough provisions for many days. So during the day he hid from the enemy, who had captured the whole place, and at night he got up from the cave and looked round for some way of escape, carefully noting where the sentries were. But there was no way to escape unseen, since on account of him all routes everywhere were guarded, so he returned to the cave. There he remained hidden for two days, but on the third day he was betrayed, when they captured a woman who had been with them. Vespasian quickly sent two tribunes, Paulinus and Gallicanus, with orders to give Josephus a promise to spare his life and to urge him to come up. So they came and invited the man to come up, assuring him that his life would be spared, but they could not persuade him. His suspicions arose not from the mild temper of those who invited him but from the likelihood that one who had done such things as he had must suffer for it. His fear that he was being invited to come up to be executed lasted until Vespasian sent him a third tribune, Nicanor, a former acquaintance and friend of Josephus. He arrived and described the innate mildness of the Romans towards the defeated, assuring him that he had behaved so valiantly that the officers rather admired than hated him. The general wanted him brought to him, not in order to punish him, for he could do this even should he not come freely, but because he preferred to save a gallant man. He added that Vespasian, had he wished to entrap him, would not have sent a friend to him, nor put a fair cloak on a foul deed by masking treachery with friendship; nor would he himself have agreed to come in order to deceive his friend. As Josephus hesitated about Nicanor's proposal, the soldiers in their anger tried to set fire to the cave, but the tribune would not let them, being anxious to take the man alive. While Nicanor was trying to get him to agree and he saw how many enemies threatened him, Josephus called to mind what he had dreamt in the night, how God had shown him in advance the future troubles of the Jews and what concerned the Roman emperors. He had skill in interpreting mysterious dreams coming from God, being a priest himself and descended from priests, and familiar with the prophecies in the sacred books. Just then he was in an ecstatic state, and recalling the tremendous images of his recent dreams he secretly prayed to God, "Since it pleases you, Creator of the Jewish nation, to break what you have made, and all their good fortune has gone over to the Romans, and you have chosen this soul of mine to foretell what is later to happen, I willingly surrender to the Romans to go on living, not as a deserter but as your servant." Saying this, he accepted Nicanor's invitation. But when the Jews who had fled with him understood that Josephus was yielding to the offer, they surrounded him in a body and cried out, "Now may our ancestral customs, and God himself, well groan - God who created the souls of Jews to despise death! Josephus, are you so fond of life? Can you bear to see the light in a state of slavery? How soon have you forgotten yourself! How many have you persuaded to give their lives for liberty! Your famous bravery is false and likewise false is your famous wisdom, if you can hope for safety from those whom you have fought so hard, and are even willing to be spared by them, if it is true. But if the fortune of the Romans has made you forget yourself, we will not see the glory of our ancestors tarnished. We will lend you a right hand and a sword. If you die willingly, you will die as general of the Jews, but if unwillingly, you will die as a traitor to them. " When they said this, they began to point their swords at him and threatened to kill him, if he thought of surrendering to the Romans. (Wars of the Jews, 3, 340-360) and leaving Nazareth, He came and settled in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali. This was to fulfill what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet:
“THE LAND OF ZEBULUN AND THE LAND OF NAPHTALI,
BY THE WAY OF THE SEA, BEYOND THE JORDAN, GALILEE OF THE GENTILES—
“THE PEOPLE WHO WERE SITTING IN DARKNESS SAW A GREAT LIGHT,
AND THOSE WHO WERE SITTING IN THE LAND AND SHADOW OF DEATH,
UPON THEM A LIGHT DAWNED.” (Matthew 4:13-16)

Verbatim: this very next story in the gospels shares some verbatim with the next event in the Jewish War: “light” and “prophet”/”prophecies”. Potential “dead”/“death” of “people” is also a theme here.
Concept: On both sides of the parallel, people are sitting in darkness on the “shadow of death”: the “dark pit” about to be set ablaze sounds awfully like Hell? But with such a grim prospect, there is light at the end of the tunnel within the context of a prophecy being fulfilled.
Typology: Josephus and co. were on the verge of death in hell, but then they saw a light – the Romans – offering them freedom of life instead of execution. God had shown Josephus through a prophetic dream the future troubles he would face with the Romans should they not surrender. Jesus shows this prophecy having come to pass through Isaiah.

Next Parallel: The demoniac at Capernaum who was first to name the Christ and Fever at the fishing town of Migdal/Tarichea - the true identity of Mary Magdalene
 

Jerry Russell

Administrator
Staff member
According to the Biblehub analysis, Matt 4:12-17 has no parallel in Luke. The Semantic Bible browser, on the other hand, has Luke 4:14-15 as a parallel.

And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee, and a report concerning him went out through all the surrounding country. And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. Luke 4:14-15

Now when he heard that John had been arrested, he withdrew into Galilee; and leaving Nazareth he went and dwelt in Caper'na-um by the sea, in the territory of Zeb'ulun and Naph'tali, that what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled: "The land of Zeb'ulun and the land of Naph'tali, toward the sea, across the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles-- the people who sat in darkness have seen a great light, and for those who sat in the region and shadow of death light has dawned." From that time Jesus began to preach, saying, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." Matt 4:12-17​

This is a pretty thin synoptic comparison: in both accounts, Jesus goes into Galilee, where he teaches or preaches.

But, in Luke 16-22, we find more:

And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up; and he went to the synagogue, as his custom was, on the sabbath day. And he stood up to read; and there was given to him the book of the prophet Isaiah. He opened the book and found the place where it was written, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord." And he closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant, and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. And he began to say to them, "Today this scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." And all spoke well of him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth; and they said, "Is not this Joseph's son?" Luke 4:16-22​

So he's back in Nazareth, but he's quoting from Isaiah, and the concept of "sight to the blind" seems related to the theme of light and darkness. So it's possible to see this "heaven and hell" parallel in Luke also -- except that the order is reversed, coming just before "Physician, heal thyself".
 
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