Chapter 17 of Secrets of the Exodus is titled Moses and Ramesses I and is quite detailed, so I'll post this in segments. It starts off showing some of the murals from Ramesses's tomb. The first of which shows him brandishing his rod over the 12 coiled serpent, Apophis. Apophis was also the name of the Hyksos king that was defeated by the first king of the 18th Dynasty, Ahmose I many years before. The second mural is that of 12 Egyptian goddesses of the night watching Apophis flee into a depiction of a parted sea. In the latter Apophis now has 12 small coils and 8 larger coils that were not remarked upon in the book. Not sure what that 8 might refer to if anything. Perhaps to a different contextual manner of referring to a hierarchy of groups involved in the Exodus than described for the children of Jacob/Israel in Genesis? In any case, the symbolic linkage between Ramesses I and Apophis here is at least tenuously suggestive of Ralph Ellis's scenario linking, via purposeful conflation of the scribes, the earlier Hykos expulsion to the later expulsion of the Yahud priesthood and the court of Akhenaton from Egypt. [Edit - paragraph added on 9/14] The authors then revert back to the beginning of the Moses narrative talking about his birth legend and how it appears obvious that this motif of being placed into the river waters and then recovered was cribbed from the prior legends of Sargon I, Gilgamesh, Cyrus (the first Persian Emperor and Biblical Jewish savior) and the Egyptian Sinuhe. They mention that for this foundational legend to work that 'Moses' needed to be born a 'Hebrew' and miraculously become an Egyptian -- raised by (one of) the Pharaoh's daughter(s). Because he is so much superior than his 'real' Egyptian brothers he becomes the head of Pharaoh's house and a student / adept of the wisdom of Egypt, including 'magic' as the story unfolds later. And this occurs when events conspire to make him revolt against Pharaoh. From pp. 140-141: The Hebrew Bible states in Exodus 2:6: "She [Pharaoh's daughter] had pity on him and said, 'It is a child of the Hebrews.'" In the Aramaic Bible, the same verse says: "She had pity on him and said, 'It is a child of the Yahuds (yehudaeh).'" So Moses was a Yahud by birth, a son of the Elohim, belonging to the Egyptian nobility, probably the son of one of Pharaoh's daughters. Let's remember from the prior posts on this that the Aramaic Bible is the Syriac Targum, the oldest OT manuscript known. And that previously in this series, the Sabbah brothers have identified the Yahuds as a particular cultic priesthood of one of the involved pharaohs (Amenhotep III), and such identification made by the inscriptions in the cult temple at Soleb in what is now northern Sudan. This would be a priesthood and cult somewhat like those of the priests of the Roman imperial cult, dedicated to the emperor as gods. Going on from before: "This woman conceived, and bore a son [Moses]. She saw that he was beautiful, and kept him hidden for three months" (Exodus 2:2). The reference to keeping Moses hidden in a cradle for three months appears to be taken from the Egyptian temple service where the priests hid Amun (the hidden god) within the sanctuary to have him reborn into the light every three months.3 "Not being able to hide him any longer, she prepared for him [Moses] a cradle of bulrushes [ Teva]. She placed the child in it and set him among the reeds on the bank of the river" (Exodus 2:3). In the same way the Pyramid Texts place Pharaoh's birth in the Lake of Reeds. "In the Lake of the Reeds, Re, Shu, and Pharaoh purified themselves. This place of water and light is similar to the celestial paradise that is shown in the form of the 'fields' that Pharaoh crosses."4 Etymologically, in Hebrew the Nile is written as the river of light. So Moses is depicted as a prince, luminous, sailing on an ark among the reeds in a river of light, which conforms to the Pharaoh in the Pyramid Texts. Moses' birth,combined with the appearance of divine light, is associated with the waters of the Nile, the River of Light. Rashi's commentary states: "How beautiful he was. When he was born, the entire house was filled with light." Although the legend of Moses saved from the waters had been assumed, the symbol of the "divine child" saved from the Nile was an integral part of Egyptian religion. Christiane Desroches Noblecourt confirms this. "Every New Year's Day,the flood brings back the divine child, the solar child who is associated with the young king who, apparently, renews himself every year."5 The following two points are of interest. The divine child, Pharaoh's son, mentioned by Christiane Noblecourt is called "Mes" or "Messess" in Egyptian, because symbolically it derives from "slave of the world." In the Bible, the Hebrew word "Teva" designates both "the cradle of Moses" and Noah's Ark. Since Pharaoh, Moses, Mosheh, the Messiah, arrive on an Egyptian Ark to save the Hebrews from slavery, the "Teva" is the Divine Ark in which God's emissary saves humanity. "Now Pharaoh's daughter went down to the river (Yeor) to bathe, with her companions following her. She saw the basket among the reeds" (Exodus 2:5). According to the following illustration, and Plutarch,6 Isis, like Miriam, hid her son Horus (the symbol of light) among the reeds. So here one can see Isis, bearing the Sun disk, giving life to the divine child (Ramesses I / aka Moses) within the sea of reeds, the papyrus marsh. The gods Amun and Thoth are assisting, while the two foster mothers are holding the serpent rods, the symbols of life and power. The crowns of the foster mothers are those of the upper and lower kingdoms of Egypt, indicating that they are of the royal court. In the next segment we'll look at Ramesses I's cartouche, including one that evokes the stone tablets of Moses and the 10 Commandments. And, as well, we'll see were the symbol for the Lion of Judah originated from, among other things.