I decided I had better make this a new thread considering its importance. This will connect the dots from our discussion of God's names in the first two OT analysis posts all the way to Amarna. I was getting worried, as I was re-reading the Secrets of the Exodus that we may have to make some edits in this regard, but it turns out not to be the case with the names of God, at least. I had obtained this book back in the post-9/11 days when Jerry and I started working together on that business. I definitely do not remember reading this section, which comes at the end of the book, after their rehash [sic] of the Exodus proper. It seemed more like an appendix to me and thus I must have skipped over it. I wish I had noticed this before, but it becomes rather satisfying to view this in light of the previous analysis of the OT patriarchs. Also, last night I happened to watch a Premillenialist documentary on the ancient city of Petra as relates to their Biblical Prophecy. I had seen others claim that Petra was the place where Moses and friends had hung out, waiting for the right time to Conquer the Promised Land. The narrator of this documentary laid out an impressive list of characters who had visited or stayed at Petra at one time or another. This included an 18th Dynasty pharaoh or two. This also included that the city, in Biblical Edom (now Jordan), was supposed (by some) to have been founded by Esau, that ruddy, red-headed twin of Jacob. And that Paul and the Herodians had been there. The Herodians were Idumeans, another way of saying Edomites. So from Secrets of the Exile, Chapter 25, Culture of the Nile, page 259, the Sabbahs begin by asserting that the 'Yahud' originated in Egypt. And that these people were the (a) priesthood of at least the time of Amenhotep III. I suggest that maybe they were something like a 'personal prelature' like today's Opus Dei is for the Vatican. They mention that the Hebrew Yehuda (for Judah) is a theophoric name, containing reference to 'Yahwe'. And that Judah was the son of Leah, as was Levi. Leah was the 'hated wife' of Jacob, the preferred being Rachel. The Sabbahs claim that the Yahud were indeed monotheistic priests, based upon the root words, 'Hodah' and 'Yahu', meaning 'praise God'. This, of course, begs the question of the relationship of the Levites to the Yahuds then in regards to priesthood status. Whatever the case, this may help answer the question of why Judea was considered a nation of priests. A nation of priests yet needs common people to handle the mundane tasks of life, and here the Sabbahs provide that the city of Akhet-aten had to have had various common peoples such as trademen and craftsmen, etc.. But here they also explain that a nomadic tribe of Semites, named the Shasu, had earlier been brought to Egypt by Tuthmoses II as prisoners of war. In a temple (Soleb) in northern Sudan today, built by Amenhotep III, was found an inscription reading, "The house of Yahu in Shasu land." Amenhotep IV (later to be Akhenaten) had visited the temple of Soleb and was depicted venerating his father, as did subsequent 18th Dynasty pharaohs. BTW, this depiction was altered by Akhenaton, and then reversed by Tut (and Ay). Also, it should be remembered that it was Amenhotep III who first declared himself to literally be god, rather than just a pope like intermediary. 'Shasu land' was in Edom, and, as I mentioned above, this is one prime location suggested as to where the Biblical exiles were to have hung out, till the time that Moses died, letting Joshua fulfill the Conquest. In fact, with regard to Petra, there are several shrines named after Musa or Moses. Including a spring, claimed to be the one where Moses struck a rock and water sprang forth. As discussed in the first two OT posts regarding the names of God, it was mentioned that the name Yahweh is likely to have originated in Edom, later to wind up in Judea. With this information, and combined with the Sabbah brothers' exodus scenario (which I've yet to finish), we can now see the likely exact path of transmission and just why Yahu / Yahweh became the chosen vehicle to launch the monotheist project. This name adding a layer of insulating obfuscation as to Egypt being the true source of the monotheisim originating in Akhet-aten. Also, remember that this is the name which is not to be spoken. perhaps as this becomes the linking thread, then this was what was most important to obscure? They explain that the roots for Yahudah are Yahu-Daeh and are found in the Egyptian words Yahu-Dueh, meaning adoration, prayer, homage, and giving praise. sounds like a priestly type of name. But were the Shasu really the Yahud, or were thy just a convenient metaphorical mule of sorts to transport the concept? They provide the hieroglyphic word for Yahut (or Yahud) which breaks down to "divine heritage, function, mission". Hmmm They discuss French scholar Fabre d'Olivet on page 260: Fabre d'Olivet emphasizes that the Hebrew Yahud relates to "the heir": "Divine emanation, God-given: that is the name of the Jewish people or the ones from Judah, from which it derives." So, it follows that the Yahud priests are the heirs of the Egyptian tradition. The Yahud symbol is found on the hand of the first of the Yahuds, the high priest, Pharaoh. Oh dear!!! Now were the Shasu capable of becoming Pharaoh? Seems dubious to me and unfortunately, here again the book is a little ambiguous. Perhaps this is just another problem that the French to English translators had. As further on they state on page 263: ... Only the Yahud priests had the authority to write a name like that on the temple columns. The Shasu did not have the right to practice sacred writing. Consequently, Yahu is one of the divine names of the god-king Amenhotep III. Yah is written on the two lions of of Soleb. The Sabbahs forgot to mention that the lion is the symbol for the tribe of Judah. Amenhotep III had the temple built for his cult focused on himself as god. This is one more reason to consider that Amenhotep III played a role in setting up the Amarna ruse, and launching the first phase of what became the Western False Dialectic as Jerry and I are describing it. As I have mentioned recently, he played an important role regarding a uniquely detailed trip to Mycenaea. Of which I think will play a role in the downstream collapse of the Late Bronze Age involving the curious Sea People, where the sophisticated Philistines end up in Canaan, blending peacefully with the Canaanites (who might also be some of the Hyksos from earlier). I'll try to add in some pics of the hieroglyphs tomorrow.