Columbus Quest for Jerusalem?: How Religion Drove the Voyages that Led to America


Well-Known Member
Hi JOE and crew

Book review, by loren hough;

Second Temple

When the Temple was rebuilt after the Babylonian captivity, the Ark was no longer present in the Holy of Holies; instead, a portion of the floor was raised slightly to indicate the place where it had stood.

Josephus records that Pompey profaned the Temple by insisting on entering the Holy of Holies.

'Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem': How Religion Drove the Voyages that Led to America; by
Carol Delaney - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia professor at Stanford University Carol Delaney's website; ... Interview with John Shuck about Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem:

“A new and provocative interpretation of Columbus. Carol Delaney
uses her training as a cultural anthropologist to brilliantly explicate
Columbus’s strange, apocalyptic world. By being more sensitive to
the differentness of the past than most historians, she has written a
remarkable work of history, and one that is utterly accessible.”

– Gordon S. Wood, author of The Idea of America:

Reflections on the Birth of the United States

Five hundred years after he set sail, the prevailing view of Christopher Columbus
holds him responsible for everything that went wrong in the New World. Now,
anthropologist Carol Delaney reveals Columbus’s real motive for undertaking his
voyage—one that stands to radically change our understanding of him.

Through field work at the key sites of Columbus’s life and extensive archival
research, Delaney discovered that Columbus himself had clearly stated the ultimate
purpose of his voyages: He intended to sail to Asia and obtain gold, through trade,
in order to finance a crusade to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims.

In Columbus’s day, it was widely believed that Jerusalem must be in Christian hands before Christ would return prior to the end of the world.

Columbus believed he had
an important role to play in this apocalyptic drama. Delaney shows him to have
been neither a greedy imperialist nor a ruthless adventurer, as he has lately been
depicted, but a man driven by an abiding religious passion.

I found this book at Stanford sitting in the big chair, looking out the window were the billionair authors talk on how they made a 1000 to 1 on Skype, on sand hill tee.

What this book says; is the prime reason to go west was to meet with the empira of china and to get him to go to war with the west to take Jerusalem together and build the new Solomon's Temple, have you heard of this? The more you think about the holly roman Venice connections with China sharing trade gold maps ideas over 500 yrs would lead to this. etc.

Inside Book
Just so you know...

Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem: How Rel…
by Carol Delaney

37 used & new from $2.07
Just so you know...

Solomon's Temple - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Temple according to the Bible

The only source of information on the First Temple is the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament). According to the biblical sources, the temple was constructed under King Solomon during the united monarchy of Israel and Judah. This puts the date of its construction in the mid-10th century BCE.[2] Some scholars have speculated that a Jebusite sanctuary may have previously occupied the site.[3][not specific enough to verify] During the kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, the god of Israel, and is said to have housed the Ark of the Covenant.[4] Rabbinic sources[which?] state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE (3338 AM), 165 years later than secular estimates.

The exact location of the Temple is unknown: it is believed to have been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock is situated.


According to the Hebrew Bible, the Temple was plundered by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar when the Babylonians attacked Jerusalem during the brief reign of Jehoiachin c. 598 (2 Kings 24:13), Josiah's grandson. A decade later, Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem and after 30 months finally breached the city walls in 587 BCE, subsequently burning the Temple, along with most of the city (2 Kings 25). According to Jewish tradition, the Temple was destroyed on Tisha B'Av, the 9th day of Av (Hebrew calendar)-

Carol Delaney

Carol Delaney received an MTS from Harvard Divinity School and a PhD in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Chicago and is a graduate of Boston University. She was the assistant director of the Center for the Study of World Religions at Harvard, and a visiting professor in the Department of Religious Studies at Brown University. She is now an emerita professor at Stanford University and a research scholar at Brown University.


Last edited:

Jerry Russell

Staff member
This makes sense to me that Columbus was trying to get to Asia, and wasn't expecting to find the Americas instead. And I think it's well-known that Europe was seeking to recapture Jerusalem at that time, so it seems perfectly consistent that Columbus' venture would've been a money-raising venture for that purpose. (Of course there are lots of other good reasons why Columbus and his backers might have wanted to make money.)

There are some references to "Shirley" in Catcher in the Rye. Joe thinks they're a pun on "Surely" but I wonder if they're talking about 'Shirley Temple', that is, the Temple? Shirley Temple is on the cover of Sgt Pepper three times; why? Representing the three temples?


Well-Known Member
This makes sense to me that Columbus was trying to get to Asia, and wasn't expecting to find the Americas instead. And I think it's well-known that Europe was seeking to recapture Jerusalem at that time, so it seems perfectly consistent that Columbus' venture would've been a money-raising venture for that purpose. (Of course there are lots of other good reasons why Columbus and his backers might have wanted to make money.)

There are some references to "Shirley" in Catcher in the Rye. Joe thinks they're a pun on "Surely" but I wonder if they're talking about 'Shirley Temple', that is, the Temple? Shirley Temple is on the cover of Sgt Pepper three times; why? Representing the three temples?
Hadrian and Judea; Second Roman-Jewish War and Jewish persecution (132–136)
See also: Bar Kokhba revolt

Coinage minted to mark Hadrian';s visit to Judea

Porphyry statue of Hadrian discovered in Caesarea, Israel
In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem, in Roman Judaea, left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, according to a midrashic tradition initially allowing the rebuilding of the Temple, but when told by Samaritans that it would be the cause for much sedition, he then changed his mind, a motive that seems to have been undone or contradicted by his subsequent decision to build a temple to the Roman god Jupiter on the ruins of the Temple Mount instead, and other temples to various Roman gods throughout Jerusalem, including a large temple to the goddess Venus.

He even renamed the city itself, as Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus, the chief Roman deity.

According to Epiphanius, Hadrian appointed Aquila from Sinope in Pontus as "overseer of the work of building the city," seeing that Aquila was related to the king by marriage. Hadrian is said to have placed the city's main Forum at the junction.

Jerusalem was still in ruins from the First Jewish–Roman War in 70. Josephus – a contemporary historian and hagiographer who was born in Jerusalem and fought the Romans in that war – reports that "Jerusalem ... was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation."

When the Roman Emperor Hadrian vowed to rebuild Jerusalem from the wreckage in 130, he considered reconstructing Jerusalem as a gift to the Jewish people. The Jews awaited with hope, but then after Hadrian visited Jerusalem, he was told that rebuilding the Second Temple would encourage sedition. He then decided to rebuild the city as a Roman colony which would be inhabited by his legionaries. Hadrian's new plans included temples to the major regional deities, and certain Roman gods, in particular Jupiter Capitolinus.

The Jewish Bar Kokhba revolt, which took the Romans three years to suppress, enraged Hadrian, and he came to be determined to erase Judaism from the province. Circumcision was forbidden, Iudaea province was renamed Syria Palaestina and Jews (formally all circumcised men) were banned from entering the city on pain of death.

Aelia came from Hadrian's nomen gentile, Aelius, while Capitolina meant that the new city was dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom a temple was built on the site of the former Jewish temple, the Temple Mount.The Latin name Aelia is the source of the Arabic term Iliyā' (إلياء), an early Islamic name for Jerusalem.
Plan of the city

The two pairs of main roads - the cardines (north-south) and decumani (east-west) - in Aelia Capitolina.

The city was without walls, protected by a light garrison of the Tenth Legion,
"LEGXF" an inscription of the legion in Jerusalem;The detachment at Jerusalem, which apparently encamped all over the city’s western hill, was responsible for preventing Jews from returning to the city. Roman enforcement of this prohibition continued through the 4th century.

The urban plan of Aelia Capitolina was that of a typical Roman town wherein main thoroughfares crisscrossed the urban grid lengthwise and widthwise. The urban grid was based on the usual central north-south road (cardo) and central east-west route (decumanus). However, as the main cardo ran up the western hill, and the Temple Mount blocked the eastward route of the main decumanus, a second pair of main roads was added; the secondary cardo ran down the Tyropoeon Valley, and the secondary decumanus ran just to the north of the Temple Mount.

As was standard for new Roman cities, Hadrian placed the city's main Forum at the junction of the main cardo and decumanus, now the location for the (smaller) Muristan. Adjacent to the Forum, at the junction of the same cardo, and the other decumanus, Hadrian built a large temple to Venus, which later became the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; despite 11th century destruction, which resulted in the modern Church having a much smaller footprint, several boundary walls of Hadrian's temple have been found among the archaeological remains beneath the Church. The Struthion Pool lay in the path of the northern decumanus, so Hadrian placed vaulting over it, added a large pavement on top, and turned it into a secondary Forum; the pavement can still be seen under the Convent of the Sisters of Zion.
Last edited:


Well-Known Member
Here we see Hadrian in full synchretic fervor- Synchretism, alas, never played well in the Holy Land-
good stuff mr T
?Tower of Babel; how to put humpy dumpty back. no more babbling brook 4 U; [The flag of the Language Creation Society has a picture of the Tower of Babel at its center] can you say doom down English bye ye shake spear, all but a few will here u! Shattered from scattered as the Synchretic Fabens pound away, give me a hammer? 4 the stones.
how big can your Capitolina grow? eu[pu!mox] = one in pairs.
or how high can you climb? walrus no more stars 4 u 12 is high as I can count.upload_2015-3-16_7-50-51.jpeg L

Tower of Babel (disambiguation).

The Tower of Babel by Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1563)

Engraving The Confusion of Tongues by Gustave Doré (1865)
The Tower of Babel (/ˈbæbəl/ or /ˈbeɪbəl/; Hebrew: מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל‎, Migddal Bāḇēl) is a story told in the Book of Genesis of the Tanakh (also referred to as the Hebrew Bible) meant to explain the origin of different languages. According to the story, a united humanity of the generations following the Great Flood, speaking a single language and migrating from the east, came to the land of Shinar (Hebrew: שנער‎).
As the King James version of the Bible puts it:

4 And they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower whose top is in the heavens; let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth.”

5 But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built.

6 And the Lord said, “Indeed the people are one and they all have one language, and this is what they begin to do; now nothing that they propose to do will be withheld from them.

7 Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.”

8 So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they ceased building the city.

9 Therefore its name is called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth.
—Genesis 11:4–9[1]
Hanging Gardens of Babylon (19th century), depicts the Tower of Babel in the background run by 12 wise men as franklin said. ojoy

Josephus (Antiquities 1.4.3), and the Sibylline Oracles (iii. 117-129), God overturns the tower with a great wind. In the Midrash, it said that the top of the tower was burnt, the bottom was swallowed, and the middle was left standing to erode over time.
Caesar says;
Comparing himself to the North Star, Caesar boasts of his constancy, his commitment to the law, and his refusal to waver under any persuasion.

This comparison implies more than steadfastness, however: the North Star is the star by which sailors have navigated since ancient times, the star that guides them in their voyages, just as Caesar leads the Roman people.
So, too, is the North Star unique in its fixedness; as the only star that never changes its position in the sky, it has “no fellow in the firmament.”

Thus, Caesar also implies that he is peerless among Romans. Caesar declares that he alone remains “unassailable” among men.

Georgia Guidestones -? has a hole in the center pillar stone that points to the north star;

The Georgia Guidestones is a granite monument erected in ... The hole in the central column runs diagonally up through the stone and points directly to the North Star. languages are: language scripts: 'Babylonian', Classical Greek, Sanskrit, and Egyptian hieroglyphs; 'English', Spanish, Swahili, Hindi, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese, and Russian. can u say 13 all in eu-english! or is really just PU? remember? don't be cancer just eat this moldy gmo pesticide weed killing dripping grown food we give u mm good 4 u?? so good we cant label it o_no yo ko o-yes. hav another vaccine.
Constructed language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A planned or constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or …

Industry Entertainment
Founded 2007
Founder Sai
Headquarters Garden Grove, California, United States The Language Creation Society (LCS) is a non-profit organization formed to promote constructed languages (conlangs), support makers of constructed languages (conlangers), and inform the general public about conlangs and the conlanger community
Last edited:


Well-Known Member
There are some references to "Shirley" in Catcher in the Rye. Joe thinks they're a pun on "Surely" but I wonder if they're talking about 'Shirley Temple', that is, the Temple? Shirley Temple is on the cover of Sgt Pepper three times; why? Representing the three temples?
There was this record I wanted to get for Phoebe, called “Little Shirley Beans.” It was a very hard record to get. It was about a little kid that wouldn’t go out of the house because two of her front teeth were out and she was ashamed to;

'Shirley Temple' ? Shirley Surely or Shrine temples; Shriners ?

Shirley Temple was actually constantly losing teeth throughout her tenure with 20th Century Fox, most notably during the sidewalk ceremony in front of Grauman's Theatre, where she took off her shoes and placed her bare feet in the cement to take attention away from her face. To combat this, she wore dental plates and caps to hide the gaps in her teeth

1932 signed her to a contract. Educational Pictures were about to launch their Baby Burlesks,series of short films satirizing recent film and political events, using pre-school children in every role.

Because the children were dressed as adults and given mature dialogue the series was eventually seen as dated and exploitive, established a formula for her future roles as a lovable, parentless waif whose charm and sweetness mellow gruff older men.

Shirley's capacity for love ... was indiscriminate, extending to pinched misers or to common hobos, it was a social, even a political, force on a par with democracy or the Constitution."She was very often motherless, sometimes fatherless, and sometimes an orphan confined to a dreary asylum.

The film was a critical and commercial hit. but British writer and critic Graham Greene muddied the waters in October 1937 when he wrote in a British magazine that Temple was a "complete totsy" and accused her of being too nubile for a nine-year-old:

Her admirers—middle-aged men and clergymen—respond to her dubious coquetry, to the sight of her well-shaped and desirable little body, packed with enormous vitality, only because the safety curtain of story and dialogue drops between their intelligence and their desire.

    • Phoebe (Bible), Corinthian woman mentioned by the Apostle Paul in Romans 16:1

full of beans, Informal.

      1. energetic; vigorously active; vital:
        He is still full of beans at 95.
          • spill the beans, Informal. to disclose a secret, either accidentally or imprudently, thereby ruining a surprise or plan:
. Temple leaving the White House offices with her mother and her bodyguard Grif, 1938 Temple in The Little Princess

Artist Salvador Dalí
Year 1939
Location Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam

A carved sphinx as park decoration from La Granja de San Ildefonso, Segovia
Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time (or Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of Contemporary Cinema), also known as the Barcelona Sphinx.

The painting depicts the child star Shirley Temple as a sphinx. Shirley Temple's head, taken from a newspaper photograph, is superimposed on the body of a red lioness with breasts and white claws. On top of the head is a vampire bat. Surrounding the sphinx are a human skull and other bones, suggesting her latest kill.
At the bottom of the painting is a trompe-l'œil label that reads: "Shirley!. at last in Technicolor." The painting has been described as a satire on the sexualization of child stars by Hollywood.

Last edited:


Well-Known Member

The Murat Shrine, now officially known as Old National Centre and originally known as the Murat Temple and Murat Centre, is an entertainment venue in Indianapolis, Indiana, owned by the Murat Shriners of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine.

It is the oldest stage house in downtown Indianapolis that is still standing, the only Shrine temple in the world with a French-originating name, and the largest Shrine temple in North America
The building is themed after Islamic temples found in the Middle East and Egypt. Features of the building include stained-glass windows, terra cotta trim, minarets, and brown and yellow brick banding. A 208-foot (63 m) tall tower is at the southeast corner. An addition to the temple was designed to blend with the existing structure.

The Egyptian-themed auditorium, added as part of the 1922 addition, had already been planned before the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb, which coincided with the opening of the auditorium;

The Murat Shrine is mostly known by the people of Indianapolis for its theater, which was built in 1910. In its early days it featured Broadway plays and even a 1932 speech by Winston Churchill. Between 1948 and 1963, it was the only road show venue in Indianapolis.

Before Clowes Memorial Hall opened in 1963, it was the home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra; the Orchestra only survived the Great Depression due to the nominal fee the Temple charged the Orchestra for using the theatre.

The orchestra made recordings with Fabien Sevitzky in the theater for 'RCA Victor' [who is your master?] between 1941 and 1953.


Florence, a world-renowned actor, while on tour in Marseille, was invited to a party given by an Arabian diplomat. The entertainment was something in the nature of an elaborately staged musical comedy. At its conclusion, the guests became members of a secret society. Florence took copious notes and drawings at his initial viewing and on two other occasions, once in Algiers and once in Cairo. When he returned to New York in 1870, he showed his material to Fleming.

Fleming took the ideas supplied by Florence and converted them into what would become the "Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (A.A.O.N.M.S.)". Fleming created the ritual, emblem and costumes.

The first shriners Temple established was Mecca Temple (now known as Mecca Shriners), established at the New York City Masonic Hall on September 26, 1872. Fleming was the first Potentate

It described the Shriners as "among secret lodges the No. 1 in prestige, wealth and show", and stated that "n the typical city, especially in the Middle West, the Shriners will include most of the prominent citizens."

Until 2000, before being eligible for membership in the Shrine, a person had to complete either the Scottish Rite or York Rite degrees of Masonry, but now any Master Mason can join.
Last edited:


Well-Known Member
Burj Khalifa
برج خليفة
Tallest in the world since 2010
Preceded by Taipei 101
Architectural style Neo-Futurism
Location 1 Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Boulevard, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
25°11′49.7″N 55°16′26.8″E / 25.197139°N 55.274111°E / 25.197139; 55.274111Coordinates:
25°11′49.7″N 55°16′26.8″E / 25.197139°N 55.274111°E / 25.197139; 55.274111
Construction started 6 January 2004
Completed 30 December 2009
Opening 4 January 2010[1]
Cost USD $ 1.5 billion[2]
828 m (2,717 ft)[
Design and construction
Adrian Smith at SOM
Developer Emaar Properties[
Structural engineer Bill Baker at SOM
Main contractor Samsung Engineering and Construction Company, Besix and Arabtec
Supervision Consultant Engineer & Architect of Record Hyder Consulting
Construction Project Manager Turner Construction
Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة‎, "Khalifa Tower", pronounced English /ˈbɜr kəˈlfə/), known as Burj Dubai before its inauguration, is a skyscra[URL='']per[/URL] in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is the tallest man-made structure in the world, standing at 829.8 m (2,722 ft).
The spiral minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra


Well-Known Member
Greater Israel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Greater Israel
is a controversial expression, with several different Biblical and political meanings over time. It is often utilized in an irredentist fashion, in ...
Images of greater israel

See more images of greater Israel

Flag of the British Mandate of Palestine in Nouveau Petite Larousse Illustré, 1924. Appears to combine Zionist symbolism with the gold-and-white colors of the old crusader
Herzl's proposed flag, as sketched in his diaries. Although he drew a Star of David, he did not describe it as such.

In 1897, the First Zionist Congress was held in Basel, Switzerland, to consider establishing a homeland for Jews in Palestine. Morris Harris, a member of New York Hovevei Zion, used his awning shop to design a suitable banner and decorations for the reception, and his mother Lena Harris sewed the flag. The flag was made with two blue stripes and a large blue Star of David in the center, the colours blue and white chosen from the design of the tallit. The flag was ten feet by six feet—in the same proportions as the flag of the United States—and became known as the Flag of Zion. It was accepted as the official Zionist flag at the Second Zionist Congress held in Switzerland in 1898, and the State of Israel later adopted the design as the official flag, upon declaration of Israel as an independent state in 1948.

A flag with blue and white stripes and a Magen David in the center flew with those of other nationalities from one of the buildings at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904.[12] It flew there in relation to large meetings of Zionists. That expo was the World's Fair hosting the 1904 Summer Olympics.

In 1885, the agricultural village of Rishon LeZion used a blue and white flag designed by Israel Belkind and Fanny Abramovitch in a procession marking its third anniversary.[7] In 1891, Michael Halperin, one of the founders of the agricultural village Nachalat Reuven flew a similar blue and white flag with a blue hexagram and the letters "נס ציונה" (Nes Ziona, "a banner for Zion": a reference to Jeremiah 4:6, later adopted as the modern name of the city).

A blue and white flag, with a Star of David and the Hebrew word "Maccabee", was used in 1891 by the Bnai Zion Educational Society.

Jacob Baruch Askowith (1844–1908) and his son Charles Askowith designed the "flag of Judah," which was displayed on July 24, 1891, at the dedication of Zion Hall of the B'nai Zion Educational Society in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. Based on the traditional tallit, or Jewish prayer shawl, that flag was white with narrow blue stripes near the edges and bore in the center the ancient six-pointed Shield of David with the word "Maccabee" in gilt letters.
In Herzl's 1896 Der Judenstaat, he stated:

Wir haben keine Fahne. Wir brauchen eine. Wenn man viele Menschen führen will, muss man ein Symbol über ihre Häupter erheben. Ich denke mir eine weisse Fahne, mit sieben goldenen Sternen. Das weisse Feld bedeutet das neue, reine Leben; die Sterne sind die sieben goldenen Stunden unseres Arbeitstages. Denn im Zeichen der Arbeit gehen die Juden in das neue Land.
We have no flag, and we need one. If we desire to lead many men, we must raise a symbol above their heads. I would suggest a white flag, with seven golden stars. The white field symbolizes our pure new life; the stars are the seven golden hours of our working-day. For we shall march into the Promised Land carrying the badge of honor.[9]
Last edited: